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(). 1742 (. . . ) --, . 1918 . . . . (1833-56) . (1856-1883). 1- - . : . , . . (1919-22), -. , . 2- ( 1955, . . ). 1945 ( "") . (1945-52) . (1951-55). 1948, . , . " " , 1949 " " . . : " " (1949), "" (1952); " " (1953). 1955-70 . . . . : "" (1956), " " (1959), "" (1966), " " (1967). . "" (1955), " " (1963), . " " (1957), "" (1964), " " (1967); , ("" " "), (" "), - (" ") . 1972 . . . - "" (. . , ), " " (. . ), " " (. . ), "" (. . ); . - "" (. . ), . 20 - , , ,?, . . 70- . ( ): " " (. ), " " (. ) - 1974; "" (. ), " " . (. ) - 1975; " " (. ), "-" (. ) - 1976; " " (. . ), " " . (. ), "" (. ), " " . - (. . ), "" . (), " " . (), " " . (. ), - 1977; "", " " ( - 1978, ).
(1978): - . , . , . , . , . ˸, . , . Ҹ, . , . , . , . ; - . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . . , .

(: . , , 1981)
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